Discourse analysis is a product of the postmodern period. While other periods are generally characterized by a belief-system or meaningful interpretation of the world, postmodern theories do not provide a particular view of the world, other that there is no one true view or interpretation of the world. In other words, the postmodern period is distinguished from other periods in the belief that there is no meaning, that the world is inherently fragmented and heterogeneous, and that any sense making system or belief is mere subjective interpretation. (more…)
Archive for the ‘discourse analysis’ Category
Tags: Arab, BarackObama, Islam, Jack Shaheen, McCain, Muslim, Obama, United State
Citation: Tariq, A. and Moody, M. (2009). Barack Hussein Obama: Campaigning While (Allegedly) Muslim. American Communication Journal (ACJ) American Communication Journal (11) 4
This textual analysis looks at how diverse news outlets framed the rumor that Sen. Barack Obama is Muslim during the 2008 Presidential Election. Researchers argue such an analysis provides insight into the nature of American attitudes toward Arabs and Muslims, and the power of these attitudes to influence an event as extensive as a national campaign. Common frames were “Arabic words,” “concealment of past” and “Obama’s foreign sounding name.” In the United State’s current atmosphere post September 11, Arab ethnicity, Islamic faith, and the evils of terrorism and war have been fused together so that association with one of these factors inevitably leads to implication in the others. Thus, suggesting that a U.S. presidential candidate is an Arab or a Muslim translates into a much more sinister accusation.
Religion was a prominent frame in the coverage of Sen. Barack Obama during the 2008 Presidential Election. Many myths and misrepresentations emerged, but perhaps the biggest one was Obama is Muslim. Commentators carried out this frame by mentioning his middle name Hussein and by associating him with Muslim leader Louis Farrakhan.
On Oct. 10, 2008, with only 25 days to go before the 2008 Presidential election, Republican nominee Sen. McCain fielded an uncomfortable question from an audience member during a town hall debate. “I can’t trust Obama,” a woman confessed. “I have read about him and he’s not… he’s an Arab.” McCain quickly recaptured the microphone from her hands. “No, ma’am. He’s a decent family man, citizen.”
Though his statement served as a respectful defense of his opponent, McCain’s words unwittingly revealed a significant undercurrent in the American consciousness—Muslims are bad. To counter the woman’s claim, McCain did not state that Obama was of Caucasian and African heritage. Nor did he address the implicit allegation in the comment–that as an Arab, Obama must also be a Muslim–by informing her that Obama was a Christian and a longtime member of the United Church of Christ. Instead, he refuted the accusation of “Arab” with the words “decent family man, citizen,” as though the two labels were mutually exclusive.
Colin Powell addressed Christian fear and bigotry surrounding Muslims in America on Meet the Press. He concluded that if a American Muslim wanted to run for president of the United States, there should not be negativity associated with it. Here is the excerpt: (more…)
Tags: Feminism, Feminist theory, Merriam-Webster, Patriarchy, People, Women, Women's rights, Women's studies
Tags: Gatekeeping (communication), Graber, Honolulu, Journalism, Journalist, Media, Pew Research Center, Self-censorship
Frame analyses are often concerned with gatekeeper functions. Media operate simultaneously as both modern agenda setters (Entman, 1989) and orthodox gatekeepers of traditional norms and values. News outlets act as gatekeepers and interpreters of political themes by selectively choosing to cover one or both sides of an issue, putting forth their own interpretation. In the end, journalists and editors draw maps or internal story patterns for their readers, and these maps or frames serve to outline public debate and influence readers’ level of information (Gamson, 1985).
The gatekeeper process illustrates the gatekeeper’s role is highly biased based on his or her own set of experiences, attitudes, and expectations. In the study, “White News: Why Local News Programs Don’t Cover People of Color,” Heider (2000) observed two newsrooms, one in Honolulu, Hawaii, and one in Albuquerque, N. M. He found that even in areas where people of color account for the majority of the population, those persons in charge of the news programming did not reflect the makeup of the population covered. (more…)
Tags: Attention, Frames, Framing, Journalism, Kent & Davis, Media, United States, Visual Arts
One of the founding tenets of journalism is objectivity, but the fact remains that due to personal beliefs and experiences, journalists use frames to make sure readers see or hear certain things and not others (Kent & Davis, 2006). Framing is a way of giving some interpretation to isolated items of fact, often placed in a frame of reference familiar to the audience (McQuail, 2000).
Entman (1993) defined framing as selecting “some aspects of a perceived reality and making them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation” (p. 52). As a macroconstruct, the term “framing” refers to modes of presentation that journalists and other communicators use to present information in a way that resonates with existing underlying schemas among their audience (Shoemaker & Reese, 1996). (more…)
Tags: Antonio Gramsci, Ideology, Karl Marx, Marx, Marxism, Orbe, Racism, Stereotype